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Unit 1 Electronic Devices
Lesson 2 Memory Devices
信息工程学院电子系     韩建峰
Lesson 2 Memory Devices
Flip-flop, Register
MOS: Metal-oxide semiconductor
PMOS: p-type Metal-oxide semiconductor
NMOS: n-type Metal-oxide semiconductor
CMOS: Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor
CMOS 是一类集成电路的总称。这种集成电路的输出结构由一个n型MOSFEF(金属氧化物半导体场效应晶体管)和一个P型MOSFET串联而成。因为n型和p型MOSFET是相互补偿的,所以也常常使用“互补”一词来说明这种集成电路。
A flip-flop is basically a bi-state circuit in which either a 0 or 1 state can resides. Because of its simplicity, the flip-flop is extremely fast. As a basic element, the flip-flop is used in digital circuits and ICs. A flip-flop will lose its state when the supply voltage is removed. Therefore, it is volatile.
A register is a set of flip-flops in parallel.  Typically a register is 8,16,32 or 64 bits wide. Often a register is used to hold data, address pointers, etc. A register is volatile and very fast just like the flip-flop.
SRAM: Static Random Access Memory
An SRAM is an array of addressable flip-flops. The array can be configured as such that the data comes out in single bit, 4-bit, 8bit, and etc. format. SRAM is simple, fast and volatile just like the flip-flop, its basic memory cell.
静态随机存取存储器( SRAM)是一种可寻址的触发器阵列。该阵列可配置成1位、4位、8位等数据格式。它和它的基本存储单元触发器一样:结构简单、存取速度快、具有易失的特点。
DRAM:Dynamic Random Access Memory
The word ´dynamic´ indicates that the data is not held in a flip-flop but rather in a storage cell. The data in a storage cell must be refreshed (read out and re-written) regularly because of leakage.
动态随机存取存储器 :“动态”这个词意味着数据不是保存在触发器当中,而是保存在一个存储单元中。由于存在泄漏,所以保存在存储单元中的数据必须定期更新(读出并重新写入)。
ROM: Read Only Memory
ROMs are also called mask-ROMs or mask programmed ROMs. This is because a ROM needs to be programmed by setting its cells to either 0 or 1 at the time of manufacture.
EEPROM:Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM
This means that the chip can be programmed like an EPROM, but can be erased electrically. As a result, no UV source is required.
CAM is also known as "associative storage". It is a memory chip in which each bit position can be compared. In regular DRAM and SRAM chips, the contents are addressed by bit location and then transferred to the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) in the CPU for comparison. In CAM chips, the content is compared in each bit cell, allowing for very fast table lookups. Since the entire chip is compared, the data content can often be randomly stored without regard to an addressing scheme which would otherwise be required. However, CAM chips are considerably smaller in storage capacity than regular memory chips.
The cache is a temporary storage area for frequently-accessed or recently-accessed data. Having certain data stored in a cache speeds up the operation of the computer. There are two kinds of cache: internal (or memory cache) and external (or disk cache). Internal cache is built into the processor, and external cache is on the motherboard. When an item is called for, the computer first checks the internal cache, then the external cache, and finally the slower main storage.
Ferroelectric is pertaining to a phenomenon exhibited by certain materials in which the material is polarized in one direction or the other, or reversed in direction by the application of a positive or negative electric field of magnitude greater than a certain amount. The material retains the electric polarization unless it is disturbed.
某些材料表现出的一种现象。当在这种材料上施加超过特定强度的电场时,该材料就在一个方向上极化或改变原极化的方向。只要不受干扰, 这种材料就一直保持其极化状态。
Overview (para.1, 2)
Flip-flop (para.3)
Register (para.4)
SRAM (para.5,6,7)
DRAM (para.8,9)
ROM (para.10,11)
EEPROM (para.12)
static,dynamic, approach,offset, pattern, hybrid , indicate
Reading/writing  techniques
Having no motion; being at rest; quiescent.
Fixed; stationary.
Of, relating to, or producing stationary charges; electrostatic.
Of, relating to, or produced by random radio noise.
Random noise, such as crackling in a receiver or specks on a television screen, produced by atmospheric disturbance of the signal.
Of or relating to energy or to objects in motion.
Of or relating to the study of dynamics.
Characterized by continuous change, activity, or progress:
Marked by intensity and vigor; forceful.
 生气勃勃的; 有力的
Of or relating to variation of intensity, as in musical sound.
A force, especially political, social, or psychological:
SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
static electricity   静电
static induction   静电感应
static control circuit  静态控制电路
static amplifier  静态放大器
dynamic circuit   动态电路
dynamic capacity   动态电容
To come near or nearer, as in space or time:
To come or go near or nearer to:
To come close to, as in appearance, quality, or condition; approximate:
近乎, 接近
The performance approaches perfection.
To make a proposal or overtures to with a specific end in view:
To begin to deal with or work on:
 着手, 开始处理
approached the task with dread.
The act of approaching:
the approach of night.  夜幕降临
A fairly close resemblance; an approximation.
A way or means of reaching something; an access:
 途径, 方法, 通路
an approach to the bridge.  通向桥的路
The method used in dealing with or accomplishing:
 步骤, 方法:
a logical approach to the problem. 对问题的逻辑解决步骤
An advance or overture made by one person to another.
With DRAM technology,this simple approach is impossible since addressing a row of data without rewriting it will destruct all data in the row because of the dynamic nature.
at the approach of    在...快到的时候
be approaching (to)   与...差不多, 大致相等
be difficult of approach   难到达的; 难于接近的
be easy of approach  容易到达的; 容易接近的
make an approach to   对...进行探讨
make approaches to sb.   设法接近某人
approach sb. on  sth.  向某人接洽
approach sb. about   sth.  向某人接洽
approach to   接近, 近似, 约等于; 做事的方法
Approach to sth./ doing sth.
Way  to do sth./of doing sth.
Method for doing sth.
An agent, an element, or a thing that balances, counteracts, or compensates for something else.
The number of measuring units from an arbitrary starting point in a record, area, or control block, to some other point.
To counterbalance, counteract, or compensate for:
fringe benefits designed to offset low salaries.
The disadvantage of the extra circuitry required for refreshing is easily offset by the lower price per bit when using large memory sizes.
zero offset  零(点)偏移
line offset  行偏移
Offset binary code 偏移二进制编码
A model or an original used as an archetype.   
A person or thing considered worthy of imitation. 
A plan, diagram, or model to be followed in making things:
a dress pattern. 服装式样
A representative sample; a specimen.
An artistic or decorative design:
A consistent, characteristic form, style, or method, as:
one's pattern of behavior. 一个人的行为特点
A test pattern.  考试模式
a flight pattern. 飞行着陆道
This aluminum pattern is defined by a lithographic mask used in one of the last steps of manufacture. Therefore these devices are often called mask-ROMs.
A physical arrangement of elements
a bit pattern   二进制位模式
a dot-matrix pattern   点矩阵模式
a storage pattern  存储模式
Repeating with some degree of correspondence in successive trials or observations
a pattern of message traffic  报文流量模式
a pattern of hardware failures  硬件故障模式
bit pattern   位组合格式
beat pattern   拍频波形图
charge pattern   电荷分布图
circuit pattern   (印刷电路)电路图案
A term sometimes applied to a “composite” device; to a device incorporating  multiple elements of different type.
 A common short form used for “hybrid circuit” and “hybrid network” mainly  in the plural.
Fast cache memory can be constructed in BiCMOS technology, a hybrid technology that uses bipolar transistors for extra drive.
Combined  adj.组合的, 结合的
combined circuit  组合电路
combined color image 组合彩色图象
Composite  adj.合成的, 复合的
composite   modulation  复合调制
composite coding  合成编码
To show the way to or the direction of; point out:
To serve as a sign, symptom, or token of; signify:
To suggest or demonstrate the necessity, expedience, or advisability of:
The symptoms indicate immediate surgery.  症状表明急需外科手术
To state or express briefly:
indicating her approval with a nod.   她点头表明同意
The word ´dynamic´ indicates that the data is not held in a flip-flop but rather in a storage cell.
voltage indicator  电压指示器
status indicator 状态指示
indicate argue attest bespeak testify witness
 The central meaning shared by these verbs is to give grounds for supposing or inferring the existence or presence of something.
a fever indicating illness;  发烧表明患病
a shabby house that argues poverty;  破旧的房屋显示出贫困;
paintings that attest the artist's genius; 表明艺术家天赋的绘画作品;
disorder that bespeaks negligence; 表明工作疏忽的混乱;
a comment testifying ignorance; 显露出无知的评论;
a stunned silence that witnessed his astonishment.不知所措的沉默说明了他的震惊
Reading/writing  techniques


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